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Medical Summarizing Sample

Summarizing an article will mean reducing its length significantly while maintaining the main points that are raised. Unlike rewriting or paraphrasing which repeats what has been written in new words but maintains a similar length, summarizing seeks to distill the information that has been written down to just a few paragraphs or even lines.

Feel free to check our samples on Medical Summarizing from one of our Professional Writers.

Ethical Issues Affecting the Advancement of Treatment/Prevention in HIV/AIDS

How can people living with HIV be helped to live longer? But why limited access to ART negatively affects the life of people with HIV? How can this problem be addressed? The use of ART has been lifesaving in the treatment of HIV. But lack of access to ART has been identified as an ethical issue. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV is an expensive pay out of pocket. There are various private, provincial, and federal prescription drug plans which lower the costs of such lifesaving medications for individuals living with HIV.

The lack of the accessibility of ART has been identified as an ethical concern. ART costs $1,000 or more each month, making it a large expense for people to pay. Across Canada, there are various programs (such as provincial government plans, private insurance, and federal government programs) which help people to cover the cost of ART. Such programs make low- or- free cost access a reality for some people. Canada’s patchwork of drug coverage does not meet everyone’s needs who live with HIV. Furthermore, there are great inequalities of access in provinces. Prince Edward Island (PEI), Alberta, and British Columbia care currently are the only provinces which effectively guarantee cost-free access to ART for their citizens. Thus, many people lack access to ART required for viral suppression while others are adversely affected by the administrative requirements of drug programs.

The negative health effect of delaying treatment results from the failure of provincial governments to provide affordable access to these lifesaving medications. Provinces should ensure cost-free access to ART with minimal administrative barriers. PEI, Alberta, and British Columbia have demonstrated that is possible to provide ART for free to everybody who needs it. Thus other provinces should follow their lead in fulfilling the ethical imperative of promoting the well-being and health of people living with HIV. Governments should recognize that they have ethical obligations to ensure ART are accessible without costs or administrative barriers to individuals living with HIV.


Kaposy, C et al,. (2016). The ethical case for providing cost-free access to lifesaving HIV medications in Canada: implications of a qualitative study. Healthcare management forum, 29(6), 255-259.


HIV/AIDs is an international public health concern with at least 30 million deaths having been reported. More than 17% of the 35 million people with HIV/AIDS live in sub-Saharan Africa. The current availability of antiretroviral treatments is inadequate since they do not cure but slow the progression of disease. Thus, treatment and care of HIV/AIDS and its related study particularly in HIV-preventative vaccine trials, require stringent ethical guidelines due to the vulnerability of the people affected as it with all clinical trials. These guidelines should incorporate the basic principles in ethics that include justice, non-malfeasance, autonomy of individual, and beneficence in the participation and care of individuals in research. With more than one in five African adults infected with HIV, this study discusses the current ethical concerns in HIV care and HIV research based on the South African context and investigating some of the issues globally.

HIV/AIDS has caused many deaths globally. The highest percentage of people with HIV lives in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa has been identified as the epicenter of HIV/AIDS. The establishment of ARV treatment despite its limitations to slow the progression of the illness instead of curing has prolonged the lives of the individuals affected. The search for effective and better treatment continues so that to stop HIV/AIDS that debilitate people as it crosses to both the effected and affected. But there have been serious ethical concerns with human participants in research. Several past examples showed that researchers could harm participants indirectly or directly, deceive participants, fail to provide treatment, and more. Therefore, ethics in research is significant for the protection of individuals vulnerable, to avoid unethical recruiting and coercion of research participants.

Justice, non-malfeasance, autonomy of individual, and beneficence are the basic ethics principles underlie the research ethics issues, management and clinical care of people with HIV/AIDS. Such ethical principles underpin clinical research and must be appropriately applied. The ethical guidelines (confidentiality and informed consent for HIV testing) have resolved the dilemma which faced care professionals on ensuring the safety and efficacy of interventions by testing them on human subjects while they must also maintain the fundamental obligations to ‘do not harm’.

These are main ethical issues associated with HIV/AIDS research and care from global and South African perspectives. As HIV/AIDS reaches new heights in developing and developed nations, ARV treatments should be scaled up and more participation in the developed nations must be involved to combat the illness. Discussion of ethical issues concerning HIV-preventative vaccine trials and associated ethical principles must be put into consideration to protect research participants.


Hlongwa, P. (2016). Current ethical issues in HIV/AIDS research and HIV/AIDS care. Oral diseases, 22(4), 61-65.

Ethical Issues in Cost-Free ART


In this article Kaposy et al. (2016) conduct a qualitative study examining an ethical case and implications of providing lifesaving HIV medications at no charge to people suffering from HIV AIDs. A look at various drug plans provided by the federal and provincial governments in addition to the private sector is provided.


In this article, the authors present the argument that the lack of free access to antiretroviral (ART) drugs to people living with HIV is an ethical issue. The study is based on an ethnographic study which was conducted in two provinces of Manitoba and Newfoundland and Labrador. The study involved 20 healthcare providers and 22 people having HIV. Semi-structured audio interviews were used to collected data from this participants. The analysis of the interview scripts indicated that access to ART was an issue among the participants.

Data analysis showed several barriers to access of ART. The first barrier is the cost of medication and affordability. The affordability is also tied to the high deductibles that the provincial plan provides. The high cost of deductibles also affected the quality of life that people with HIV lived. Another barrier was the administrative requirement such as tax returns from applicants requiring the help of experts to address these issues. Moreover, the study also showed that some people experienced treatment interruption due to their financial situations. From these findings, the author argues that delaying treatment, foregoing treatment and its negative impacts on the quality of life is an issue that the government should address through cost-free access to ART for individuals living with HIV AIDS. The author also discusses the financial impact of cost-free access and notes reduces the pressure on a healthcare system in addition to reducing transmission when good adherence is practiced.


  1. To what extent should the government provide cost-free access to ART?
  2. Should the government and private sector have a role in educating and encouraging people living with HIV to take medication?
  3. How ethical is it for person living with HIV not accessing free ART medication?


Kaposy, C., Greenspan, N. R., Marshall, Z., Allison, J., Marshall, S., & Kitson, C. (2016). The ethical case for providing cost-free access to lifesaving HIV medications in Canada: Implications of a qualitative study. Healthcare Management Forum, 29(6), 255–259. https://doi.org/10.1177/0840470416660569


The article “Current ethical issues in HIV/AIDS research and HIV/AIDS care” by P Hlongwa (2016) postulates that HIV/AIDS is a global public health concern due to its ravaging effects. The article further explicated that around 30 million people die of HIV/AIDS complications. This is worsened by the fact that the current available antiretroviral treatments do not cure the disease but just slow down its progression. Consequently, the HIV/AIDS treatment and care as well as the related research must be conducted within the stringiest of ethical guidelines due to the vulnerability of the HIV/AIDS infected persons. These guidelines will encompass such important areas as autonomy of individuals, malfeasance, beneficence, and justice.


According to WHO, HIV/AIDS has claimed more deaths globally, with a vast majority of people living with HIV/AIDS living in sub-Saharan Africa. According to the Health System Trust, South Africa is the most hard-hit country. As a result, studies are being conducted to find an effective cure to this debilitating disease, which has raised a number of ethical concerns.

There are a number of commonly recognized basic ethical principles, which include the autonomy of individuals (respecting the independence of individuals in decision-making and ensuring their confidentiality), beneficence (demand for accountability and responsibility when handling the participants of the research), non-maleficence (that individuals should be protected from intentional harm) and justice (fairness in treating individuals). All these ethical principles are suggested in order to safeguard the safety and security of the research participants.

Moreover, there are also a number of ethics guiding the clinical care and management such as confidentiality (Newman et al., 2015), informed consent (CIOMS, 2002), informed consent for HIV/AIDS testing (Garner et al, 2014), conflict of interest (WHO, 2003) and ethics of non-publication of inconvenient results (Okike et al., 2008). According to Moorhouse et al (2014), these ethics are very important because they ensure efficacy and safety of the interventions when testing them on human subjects.

In conclusion, HIV/AIDS pandemic is a disease that has wreck havoc in the world today, particularly in the sub-Saharan Africa. Consequently, a number of researches are being conducted in order to find better treatment for this disease. Considering these robust investigations, the ethical considerations and guidelines should be adhered to especially in HIV preventive vaccine trials in order to protect the research participants.

Questions for further discussion

  1. With the intense research being conducted on HIV/AIDS preventive vaccine, will the numerous ethical considerations hinder its progress?

  2. The existing research by bodies such as WHO have indicated that the highest percentage of individuals living with HIV/AIDS live in sub-Saharan Africa. How will these countries effectively combat this disease?

  3. What must be done to make the HIV-preventive vaccine a reality?


Moorhouse R et al (2014). Stakeholder views of ethical guidance regarding prevention and care in HIV vaccine trials. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981027

Newman et al (2015). Advancing community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials: principles, practices and evidence. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25174764

Garner et al (2014). Ethical considerations in HIV prevention and vaccine research in resource-limited settings. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25117930

WHO (2003). The implementation of ethical guidelines for research on HIV. http://www.who.int/hiv/strategic/mt020603/en/